Standard Zimm Plot


Multi‐angle light scattering (MALS) batch measurements of protein solutions over a series of concentrations can determine A2 effectively and nondestructively. However, the standard technique of carefully preparing well‐determined concentrations, and introducing each in succession via either scintillation vials or microbatch injections, is tedious and labor‐intensive. As such it is prone to human error, and suffers from poor reproducibility. With the Calypso® system, a MALS detector (e.g. DAWN® or miniDAWN®) and an on‐line concentration detector (usually a dRI or UV absorption detector), A2 measurements are automated for rapid turnover, minimal operator effort and high reproducibility.