Wyatt Technology

Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF) is a versatile separation technique that overcomes many of the limitations of analytical SEC. Combine with MALS and/or DLS for absolute molar mass and size of macromolecules and nanoparticles.


Available in two formats, Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) and Hollow-Fiber Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (HF5) provide numerous advantages over other separation techniques:

  • Fractionate macromolecules and nanoparticles 1 nm to > 1 µm
  • Eliminate column shear that may degrade fragile samples
  • Avoid adverse interactions with column packing beads

FFF Analysis of Serum

FFF-MALS analysis of whole serum to determine mass and size distributions of all components.

Coupling an FFF system to a set of Wyatt MALS and/or DLS detectors creates a powerful system for accurate and robust characterization of molar mass and size distributions for simple or complex samples:

  • Liposomes, virus-like particles or inactive viruses
  • Whole serum
  • Nanoparticles and biopolymers in the food industry
  • Environmental nanoparticles
  • Heterogeneous biopolymers and synthetic polymers
  • Oligomers and aggregates
  • Conjugates such as ADCs, PEGylated proteins or block co-polymers

FFF can also be coupled to ICP-MS for elemental analysis.

Selected references

Application notes

Instrumentation for FFF-MALS

  • Field-Flow Fractionation Systems


    Wyatt offers complete FFF-MALS turn-key solutions, or can integrate the Eclipse module into your existing LC system.

    Eclipse® DualTec™ - The complete fluidics control system that integrates with your HPLC pump and autosampler to provide all the advantages of FFF without losing SEC capabilities. Supports switching between any two of AF4, HF5 and SEC.

    Eclipse® AF4™ - The basic AF4 fluidics control system, optimal when switching automatically between SEC and AF4 is not important. The AF4 is required for the fritless channel, and optimal for semi-preparative FFF.

    Eclipse Channels - The Eclipse system offers a wide selection of separation channels and membranes to accommodate a variety of analytical and even semi-preparative tasks.

  • MALS Detectors

    dawn-heleos-II, fff-mals

    DAWN® HELEOS® II - The most sensitive MALS detector available, anywhere. Incorporates detectors at 18 angles to determine molar masses from 200 Da to 1 GDa and radii from 10 – 500 nm.

    • Heated/cooled option: -15°C to +150°C
    • High-temperature option: to +210°C

    miniDAWN® TREOS® - Second only to the DAWN in sensitivity. Incorporates detectors at 3 angles to determine molar masses from 200 Da to 10 MDa and radii from 10 – 50 nm. Ambient only.

  • Dynamic Light Scattering Detector

    WyattQels, fff-mals

    WyattQELS™ - A dynamic light scattering (DLS) module which integrates into a DAWN or miniDAWN MALS detector to provide simultaneous DLS measurements in the same MALS scattering volume.

  • Refractive Index Detectors

    optilab-t-rex, fff-mals

    Optilab® T-rEX™ - A unique on-line differential refractometer for measuring concentration of any macromolecule, regardless of chromophores.

    Optilab® UT-rEX™ - The first differential refractometer for UHPLC, also optimal for hollow-fiber FFF. For measuring concentration of any macromolecule, regardless of chromophores.

  • Accessories

    Solaris, fff-mals

    COMET™ - An ultrasonic transducer that cleans MALS flow cells automatically by agitating the fluid and loosening particles from the glass surfaces. This module may be integrated into a DAWN or miniDAWN, and is included with the µDAWN.

    Orbit™ - The Orbit helps conserve mobile phase by programmatically directing the solvent to either a waste bottle or back to the solvent reservoir.

    RI Calibration Kit - This set of refractive index calibration standards can be used to calibrate any Optilab or third-party differential RI instrument.

    Solaris™ - Prevents growth of bacteria, fungi or algae in solvents with high efficiency and protects your system from down-time due to contamination.

    WISH Injection Module - The Wyatt Injection System for High-Pressure (WISH) simplifies manual loading of SEC columns as well as "batch" determination of dn/dc values using an Optilab.

  • Software

    ECLIPSE software, particle size analysis, size exclusion chromatography, nanoparticle size, nanoparticle analysis

    ECLIPSE - Controls the Eclipse DualTec and AF4 Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF) systems. Coupled with ASTRA for data collection and analysis, ECLIPSE provides users with a turn-key solution for macromolecular characterization.


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Wyatt Technology is the recognized leader in light scattering instrumentation and software for determining the absolute molar mass, size, charge and interactions of macromolecules and nanoparticles in solution.

Wyatt's line of multi-angle static light scattering products couple to size exclusion chromatography (SEC-MALS), field-flow fractionation (FFF-MALS), and stop-flow composition-gradient systems (CG-MALS). Our dynamic light scattering (DLS) products operate in traditional cuvette as well as on-line and automated, high-throughput modes. We also offer unique instruments for electrophoretic light scattering (MP-PALS), differential refractometry, and differential viscosity.

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