Wyatt Technology

Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF) is a versatile separation technique that overcomes many of the limitations of analytical SEC. Combine with MALS and/or DLS for absolute molar mass and size of macromolecules and nanoparticles.


Available in two formats, Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) and Hollow-Fiber Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (HF5) provide numerous advantages over other separation techniques:

  • Fractionate macromolecules and nanoparticles 1 nm to > 1 µm
  • Eliminate column shear that may degrade fragile samples
  • Avoid adverse interactions with column packing beads

FFF Analysis of Serum

FFF-MALS analysis of whole serum to determine mass and size distributions of all components.

Coupling an FFF system to a set of Wyatt MALS and/or DLS detectors creates a powerful system for accurate and robust characterization of molar mass and size distributions for simple or complex samples:

  • Liposomes, virus-like particles or inactive viruses
  • Whole serum
  • Nanoparticles and biopolymers in the food industry
  • Environmental nanoparticles
  • Heterogeneous biopolymers and synthetic polymers
  • Oligomers and aggregates
  • Conjugates such as ADCs, PEGylated proteins or block co-polymers

FFF can also be coupled to ICP-MS for elemental analysis.

Selected references

Application notes

Instrumentation for FFF-MALS

  • Field-Flow Fractionation Systems


    Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) and Hollow-Fiber Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (HF5) perform versatile separation of macromolecules and nanoparticles ranging from 1 nm to 10,000 nm in radius. Combined with MALS and DLS instrumentation, FFF separation is the ideal means for obtaining distributions of molar mass and molecular size, in solution.

    Wyatt offers complete FFF-MALS turn-key solutions, or can integrate the Eclipse module into your existing LC system.

    Eclipse™ DualTec™ - Tip-injection FFF fluidics control system that integrates with your HPLC pump and autosampler to provide all the advantages of FFF without losing SEC capabilities. Supports switching between any two of AF4, HF5 and SEC.

    Eclipse™ AF4™ - Center-downstream injection FFF fluidics control system, optimal when use with HF5 or SEC is not important. The AF4 is required for the fritless channel and semi-preparative FFF.

  • MALS Detectors

    dawn heleos, fff-mals

    DAWN® - The most sensitive MALS detector available, anywhere. Incorporates detectors at 18 angles to determine molar masses from 200 Da to 1 GDa and radii from 10 – 500 nm.

    • Standard option: ambient temperature
    • Heated/cooled option: -15°C to +150°C
    • High-temperature option: ambient to +210°C

    The DAWN offers special options to handle fluorescent samples: fluorescence-blocking filters and an infrared, 785 nm laser.

    - Second only to the DAWN in sensitivity. Incorporates detectors at 3 angles to determine molar masses from 200 Da to 10 MDa and radii from 10 – 50 nm. Ambient only.

  • Dynamic Light Scattering Detector

    WyattQels, fff-mals

    WyattQELS™ - A dynamic light scattering (DLS) module which integrates into a DAWN or miniDAWN MALS detector to provide simultaneous DLS measurements in the same scattering volume.

  • Refractive Index Detectors

    optilab-t-rex, fff-mals

    Optilab® - A unique on-line differential refractometer for measuring concentration of any macromolecule, regardless of chromophores. Temperature controlled from 4°C to 65°C.

  • Accessories

    Solaris, fff-mals

    COMET™ - An ultrasonic transducer that cleans MALS flow cells automatically by agitating the fluid and loosening particles from the glass surfaces. This module is included with each DAWN, miniDAWN and microDAWN.

    Orbit™ - The Orbit helps conserve mobile phase by programmatically directing the solvent to either a waste bottle or back to the solvent reservoir.

    RI Calibration Kit - This set of refractive index calibration standards can be used to calibrate any Optilab or third-party differential RI instrument.

    Solaris™ - Prevents growth of bacteria, fungi or algae in solvents with high efficiency and protects your system from down-time due to contamination.

    WISH Injection Module - The Wyatt Injection System for High-Pressure (WISH) simplifies manual loading of SEC columns as well as "batch" determination of dn/dc values using an Optilab.

  • Software

    ECLIPSE software, particle size analysis, nanoparticle size, nanoparticle analysis

    ECLIPSE - Controls the Eclipse DualTec and AF4 Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF) systems. Coupled with ASTRA for data collection and analysis, ECLIPSE provides users with a turn-key solution for macromolecular characterization.

    ASTRA - Our comprehensive software solution for MALS and DLS analysis in chromatography, FFF or batch mode. ASTRA is available in a 21CFR(11) compliant version and offers additional options such as particle analysis and a research database.


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Wyatt Technology is the recognized leader in light scattering instrumentation and software for determining the absolute molar mass, size, charge and interactions of macromolecules and nanoparticles in solution.

Wyatt's line of multi-angle static light scattering products couple to size exclusion chromatography (SEC-MALS), field-flow fractionation (FFF-MALS), and stop-flow composition-gradient systems (CG-MALS). Our dynamic light scattering (DLS) products operate in traditional cuvette as well as on-line and automated, high-throughput modes. We also offer unique instruments for electrophoretic light scattering (MP-PALS), differential refractometry, and differential viscosity.

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