Wyatt Technology provides the essential techniques for characterizing macromolecules and nanoparticles in solution, to determine molar mass, size, charge, and interactions.


What's the solution to characterizing your macromolecules or nanoparticles in solution?

Browse these topics to learn more about the physical properties measured, experimental techniques supported, classes of analytes studied or the users served by Wyatt instruments.

Molar Mass or Molecular Weight

Multi-Angle static Light Scattering (MALS) measures molar mass directly, in solution. Combined with a fractionation technique like Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) or Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF), MALS determines absolute molar mass distributions—independent of elution time and as the molecule exists in solution.


The size of macromolecules or nanoparticles is measured via two light scattering methods: MALS and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Each technique contributes critical pieces of the characterization puzzle.

Charge/Zeta Potential

Molecular charge and nanoparticle zeta potential are core properties of a solute and a solvent, relevant to colloidal stability, chemical modifications and other key qualities.


Biomolecular interactions are key to understanding a host of phenomena ranging from structure-function relationships and biotherapeutic activity through stability and aggregation.


Shape, structure or conformation of macromolecules and nanoparticles are analyzed quantitatively via MALS, differential viscometry, and DLS.


The combination of MALS, UV and refractive index (RI) detection with SEC, plus ASTRA's Conjugate Analysis algorithm, offers the solution to the characterization of conjugated macromolecules.


The opalescence or turbidity of a solution is often an indicator of stability and can be measured by light scattering.


Delivery vehicles such as AAV or lipid nanoparticles will contain different levels of their encapsulated or encapsulated genetic or therapeutic payload. The empty or full state, as well as the amount of the therapeutic molecule, can be determined by MALS in conjunction with an optical detector.


Conventional Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) relies on reference standards that do not accurately represent your molecules. Multi-Angle static Light Scattering (MALS) measures molar mass directly, independent of elution time, so you can have confidence in the values you report.


Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF) is a versatile separation technique that overcomes many of the limitations of analytical SEC. Combine with MALS and/or Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) for absolute molar mass and size.


Composition-Gradient, Multi-Angle static Light Scattering (CG-MALS) is a powerful technique for characterizing a wide range of biomolecular interactions, label-free and immobilization-free. CG-MALS determines binding affinity, absolute stoichiometry, equilibrium and kinetics of simple or complex interactions.


Widely used in biochemistry, biotechnology and pharmaceutical development, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) is popular wherever the size and size distributions of macromolecules and nanoparticles need to be measured quickly and easily. Wyatt offers high-throughput, automated DLS as well as conventional formats.


Important for evaluating colloidal stability and physiological function of nanoparticles and complex biomolecules, Electrophoretic Light Scattering (ELS) quantifies a particle’s motion in response to an electric field. In combination with DLS, ELS determines the particle’s electrophoretic mobility, surface charge and zeta potential.


Intrinsic Viscosity in conjunction with Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC-IV) characterizes those classes of polymers that are incompatible with light scattering, and extends MALS conformational analysis to low molecular weight samples.

Real-Time MALS

Whereas MALS is traditionally used in the analytical laboratory, it can also be utilized to develop, monitor and control production processes for nanoparticles, biopharmaceuticals and polymers. (RT-MALS) determines weight-average molar mass (Mw) and z-average rms radius (Rg). RT-MALS is used in PAT environments to indicate a process endpoint or flag deviations from acceptable product attribute values.


Wyatt’s suite of solutions are used across vaccine discovery, development, production and quality control and analyze critical vaccine attributes, including: molar mass and size, viral physical titer and nucleic acid content, aggregation, and thermal and colloidal stability.

Gene Therapy

Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and multi-angle light scattering (MALS) coupled to separation technologies (SEC-MALS, FFF-MALS) reveal molar mass and size, aggregation, physical titer, empty:full ratio and stability of gene vectors.


Light scattering technologies assist at each stage of the biotherapeutic R&D pipeline, with uniquely versatile technologies for biophysical screening and characterization, from target and candidate discovery to selection, optimization, purification, and formulation.


Proteins conjugates, aggregation, colloidal stability and protein-protein interactions can be analyzed with MALS, high-throughput Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), and Composition-Gradient, Multi-Angle static Light Scattering (CG-MALS).


A DAWN MALS detector and Optilab dRI detector work together to determine distributions of absolute molar mass and size of natural or synthetic polymers independently of column calibration.

Nanoparticles and Lipid Nanoparticles

Size, composition, mass and zeta potential of nanoparticles and lipid nanoparticles can be analyzed via MALS, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF) and Electrophoretic Light Scattering (ELS).


Light scattering is used by biopharmaceutical companies in their R&D, Formulations, QC, and Manufacturing settings in compliance with FDA regulations.


Global chemical companies rely on light scattering instrumentation to standardize worldwide characterization techniques for natural and synthetic rubbers, olefins and other petrochemical products.

Medical Device

Wyatt's cutting edge technology has assisted R&D scientists worldwide to better characterize the molecular properties of materials that make up various implantable medical devices.


Wyatt light scattering instruments are used for teaching and research at some of the most prestigious academic centers in the world.


Wyatt instruments are used in U.S. government research laboratories, including the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and various national laboratories affiliated with the Department of Energy